Theories of Crime Causation
Criminologists, Criminalists, and Forensic Psychologists and Their Areas of Study
Criminologists are people who analyses crime and criminal behavior and try to come up with explanations of why those who commits crime do it. Criminologists involve themselves in analyzing the behavior of the criminal and the methods the criminal use. After the analysis Criminologists comes up with criminal conduct profiles through studying and researching psychological behavior, issues in the society, environmental contribution, level of education, and biological aspects. They help prepare statistics on crime into effective tools in law implementation agencies (Wrightsman, 2001).
Criminalists are people who involve themselves in identifying, comparing, analyzing and interpreting physical evidence. A Criminalist objectively examines the physical evidence employing their experience and skills in investigation. The criminalist separates the vital evidence from unimportant evidence that has no essential value. Criminalist uses scientific methods to identify, separate, and compare evidence in a useful way during investigation or trial. Criminalist involve in deducing the evidence, and test results with the aim of getting the truth.
Forensic Psychology involves the application of psychology to criminal justice process. The forensic psychologists investigate the perspective of psychology and use them in the criminal justice process. They majorly relate to assessing and treating of criminal’s behavior (Wrightsman, 2001).
Differences between White-Collar Crime and Blue-Collar Crime
Blue–collar crime is a criminal act committed by citizens from the lower class in the society; these crimes instill direct harm people or threaten them. Blue-collar crime covers crimes that are more possible to be committed by a person ignited by passion contrary to those demanding cautious deliberation. Blue-collar crime cause direct effect to the society and are punishable heavily compared to punishment for white-collar crime. These crimes include gambling drug abuse among others. Blue-collar clime usually affects one family of part of the community. The crime is horrific, and calls for much attention and focus (Paternoster, 2002). White-collar crime is crime committed by citizens from the higher class in the society. These people can afford legal assistance which of high quality. For example of white-collar crime is money laundering and financial fraud. These crimes are motivated by money and are nonviolent and are done for financial gain illegally. They affect business and the society financial in a big way (Friedrichs, 1996).
Types of Crime Measured by the FBI in the Uniform Crime Reports
Index in crime statistics are taken as part of the uniform crime reporting process. These are taken as representative of most offensive crimes. There are eight crime indexes which are grouped into two; property crime and violent crime. FBI has authority over violence under different sets of federal law. Under the uniform crime report the FBI collects data relating the following offences: arson, robbery, aggravated assault, homicide, larceny-theft, forcible rape, burglary and vehicle theft (Friedrichs, 1996).
There are eight crime that the FBI integrates to in preparing their crime report. These crimes are forcible rape, larcency, arson, vehicle theft, willful homicide, assult, burgalry and robberly. For the purposes of statistical presentation at the national level a standard defination is put in place for guidance. The standard eliminate difference between indivudual states rulings, that would influnce how a person is punished, it also creates a basis crime standadisation. It involves classifying crimes into serious crimes and non serious crimes.
Blue-Collar Crime is Heavily Focused in Popular Culture through the Media
In popular culture the media focuses on the blue-collar crimes. We see the media report about increase in crime rate or drop in crime rate basing their reference on the rate of crimes such as robbery, rape, vehicle theft among others all of which falls under the blue-collar crime.
White-collar crimes do not cause much attention. It is not exciting or dramatic and a lot of people fail to understand it. Many people know what rape or murder is. However, white collar crimes cause the reaction made by blue-collar crimes. For example fraud does not affect feelings of many people and thus it fails to receive much focus in the media. A great example is the Lehman Brothers and AIG scandals that caused made nearly every person aware that someone suffered from the company failing (Hoover, 1998).
Index-One Crime and an Index-Two Crime as Measured in the Uniform Crime Reports
According to uniform crime reports of the FBI, index-one crimes are wrongdoings committed which consists of severe felonies. Index-two crimes are offences involving minor felonies (Hoover, 1998).
Classification of Index-One Crimes as Violent or Property Crimes
Crimes fall under two different categories; violent and property crimes. Violent crimes hurt or threaten people directly while property crime does not affect people directly.
Under index-one crimes, forced rape, battery, robbery and murder are categorized as violent crimes. Since they require use of force and this will result in direct harm to the person.
The following index-one crimes are categorized as property crimes; vehicle theft, burglary and theft. The above crimes do not cause harm or threaten a person directly.
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