Support Live Chat
Nov 8, 2017 in Informative
The Role of Chemical Engineering in Environmental Remediation
Green engineering is a phrase used to explain the role of engineering to reduce or eliminate daily carbon emissions. Green engineering is a process through which products and services are designed in order to lower their impact on the environment. This process eliminates the health hazards posed to man and the environment through pollution. The processes used in green engineering should be economically feasible and cost effective when applied to the existing processes of the product design. Environmental remediation is a phrase meaning the restoration of a deeply contaminated location or place to a condition that it will not be a threat to life forms or human health. In conventional clean ups, the contaminated site is usually fenced off to prohibit a human and animal entry but green engineering designs methods that will clean the air, soil and water in such a site. This paper highlights the role of chemical engineering processes and methods in the environmental remediation.
Each year, industries across the world generate multi-billion tons of wastes. This is a potential risk to all the life on the planet and consequently the environmental degradation. In addition to that, recycling and managing these wastes is costing enterprises millions of shillings although regulatory measures are in place. From the start of industrialization, laws regarding environmental protection are on the increase, but some have done little to protect the environment against degradation (NRC Board, 2000).
Green engineers have resorted to design systems that will remediate the environment from choking wastes. They have used green chemistry methods like selecting chemicals that are not toxic, have low potential hazards, which are eliminated through the reduction of chemical exposures. Environmental designs try to reduce risk to the natural ecosystems, workers in industries and consumers of the goods.
Before designing any process that remediates the environment, green engineers have to access the risks of a production process to the environment and human life. A risk can be expressed as the role of exposures and hazards. A hazard is defined as anything that produces a detrimental effect on the human environment, while exposure is defined as the qualitative assessment of a chemical when it is exposed to the human or animal body, for instance, the skin and the respiratory system. It is vital to note that conventional methods of preventing pollution focus on the reduction of wastes while modern methods of green engineering evaluate the risk posed by the chemicals used in production. Using the approach of risk assessment, engineers have been able to design processes that will be economically beneficial and feasible, while reducing the risk to the environment.
The application of risk concepts has made green engineers to design “green” processes and products. They have optimized designs with the purpose of reducing environmental impacts. Chemicals that need to be eliminated or minimized have been highlighted, and industries are educated on their adverse effects. Green engineers have estimated the risk that the current processes pose to the human environment and people, in addition to accessing the recycle channels and feeding processes.
Processes that Remediate the Environment Treatment of Wastewater and Industrial Discharge
Chemical Precipitation Industries and sewage systems emit a lot of water contaminated with heavy metals. In the conventional systems, the water is kept in treatment plants where heavy metals are not removed. Heavy metals like lead, mercury, cobalt may not be removed from effluents through the filtering or precipitation processes. Green engineering is evaluating chemical products and synthesizers used in the water treatment. These chemicals may prove to be useful in remediation of wastewater. The methods have to ensure that the precipitates will not deteriorate and discharge heavy metals to the surroundings. The fist method involves the treatment of wastewater using alum and a polymer. These chemicals enable the precipitation of heavy metals in wastewater. In addition to that, they reduce the PH of treated wastewater from about 8.5 and lower it to 7.
Wastewater treated using alum and a polymer results to clear water with a PH of 7 in the next bottle. A Californian Company, ETUS Inc., manufactures Thio-Red, a commercial product that has been successfully used in removing heavy metals from sewage and industrial water. This product reacts with heavy metals to form metal sulfides instead of metal thiocarbonates. The other products include TMT-55 and TMT-15, which are very efficient in precipitating copper, lead, and silver from effluents (Henke 7-55).
Treatment of Wastewater Using Algae
William Oswald, an environmental scientist at Berkeley University, developed the process of treating water using algae photosynthesis in ponds that are openly incorporated. This system is used to treat sewage in almost all countries in the world (Earth Sciences Division, n.d).
Creation of Bioenergy to Reduce Carbon Emissions
This system involves the design of systems that will use microbial genomics in relation with biofuels and recovery of hydrocarbons emitted during the production process.
Micriobially Enhanced Hydrocarbon Recovery Method (MEHR)
In the MEHR method, microorganisms, oxygen, nutrients are put in a reservoir with used or contaminated oil in order to enhance oil recovery. The main objectives of these processes are to transform the hydrocarbon components found in oil. This will make oil to be more fluid and viscid. This method can be used to clean environments, which have been contaminated with waste products produced by fossil fuels.
Use of Algae to Generate Biofuel
Algae can be used to generate biofuels for industrial use. Although it is a ubiquitous organism, algae have been used in the pharmaceutical world and it can be applied in the production of clean energy. Algae that absorb carbon are a great potential and an alternative to the use of fossil fuels. One setback with the use of algae to produce biofuel, there is the need of large systems (Earth Sciences Division, n.d).
Ethanol Production from Biomass
Sugar undergoes a series of chemical processes to produce ethanol. This process is referred to as fermentation. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced after microorganisms have fermented the sugar.
Treatment of Soil
Intellishare Environmental Company provides a soil remediation oxidizer, vacuum extractor and control systems. These packages can help in restoring the natural components and structure of soil in a contaminated area. In addition to that, the combination of the systems of this soil remediation method can slip through the cracks and help in treating the lower soil layers. Intellishare Environmental Company soil remediation oxidizer, vacuum extractor and control system.
Processes in Production that Can Remediate the Environment
Use of Chemicals that are Less Toxic
Green Engineers recommend the use of Poly vinyl formamide that is a less toxic chemical used in the paper industries, water treatment plants, oil recovery, and industries used to design items for personal care. This chemical is not a neurotoxin even when ingested. Polyacrylamide, a chemical used in the same process, is very toxic and can cause paralysis of the Central Nervous System when ingested. The wastes produced are very expensive to clean up. In addition to that, CNS paralysis can lead to loss of lives, livelihoods, and increased dependency (Van Noordern, 2011).
Green System Design
Piping used in industries should slope downwards to reduce the amount of solvents used. Short and big pipes reduce the flow dram while using very low energy. Industries should not have dead-end sample points in order to reduce wastes. Other green engineering changes that can be made to the industry include the use of efficient raw materials that are somehow refined. For instance, water used in the refinery industries can be treated before being used to reduce sludge wastes. Selectivity in rectors should also be increased to reduce the time taken to mix and catalyze. This can be enhanced by using highly efficient reactors, which take little residence time. Industries should use efficient separation processes.
Conventionally, separate reaction and separation processes demand the use of large amounts of solvents while consuming a lot of energy or pressure. Green technology has developed novel methods that allow products to separate by themselves due to their physical and chemical properties. The other method is through combined reaction and separation processes that occupy little space, consume less energy, and are more efficient because it allows almost 99% conversion.
Distillation and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) processes can also be combined to increase efficiency and reduce wastes. PET bottles can be recycled using simple processes. The colors of the bottles are sorted using spectroscopy since PET bottles have a characteristic green dye incorporated into their surface. The bottles are shredded and washed to remove labels. In the same water, HDPE and PET bottles are separated through their different densities. The aluminum ring is removed using an electrostatic ring, and the bottles can be reused.
- Free plagiarism report (on request)
- Free revision (within 2 days)
- Free title page
- Free bibliography
- Free outline (on request)
- Free email delivery
- Free formatting
- Quality research and writing
- BA, MA and PhD degree writers
- 100% confidentiality
- No hidden charges
- Never resold works
- 100% authenticity
- 24/7/365 Customer Support
- 12pt. Times New Roman
- Double-spaced/Single-spaced papers
- 1inch margins
- Any citation style
- Fully referenced papers
- Up-to-date sources
Efficiency Maximization Systems
Processes, products should be designed to maximally utilize energy, mass, time and space in an efficient manner. Heat integration systems should be coupled to increase efficiency while reducing wastes. For instance, in a cooling plant and heating plant, the systems can be interconnected in a way that steam from hot water is released to heat cold water. This reduces the loss of energy to the surroundings.
According to La Chatelier’s principle, if stress is applied to a system, the system reacts by offsetting itself to relive the applied pressure. In industrial terms, stress can be defined as any factor that upsets the concentration gradient, for instance, temperature and pressure. Increase of an input into a production system will lead to an increase in the generation of an output. This design aims to minimize the quantities of resources used, while getting a good amount of output. In this context, manufacturing systems can be based on timely manufacturing. Timely manufacturing refers to the production of goods to meet the consumers’ quantity, quality and in their time of demand.
This method implies that the resources, equipment, and labor are available when there is a demand created by the consumers. This is a form of a planned manufacturing system that manages the wastes, overproduction, reduces waiting time, inputs and outputs. This enables that industries have minimized excess while meeting the needs of their consumers. Chlorination of water is simple and makes millions of water safe within a short time. This method spends little energy of water treatment plants that use unnecessary resources like heat, power and labor. Green engineering advocates for methods like express metal deposition over metal casting because the wastes, produced by the earlier method is little.
Reduction of Complexity
The use of natural systems should not be avoided in the manufacturing process. The higher the complexity is involved in making a product, the lower there are the chances of recycling the material. Products should be made in a way that they are durable rather than those ones that have a very long period of use. If production processes target immortality, there is a high risk of the products to the environment and many potential hazards to the human life. For instance, the eco-fill food grade input is constituted from water and starch. It can be used in the industrial production, very durable, and exerts little burden to the environment because it is mortal. The other method that eliminates environmental hazards is the use of polylactic acid to manufacture fibers and plastics over polyacrylic acid, which is non-biodegradable (Center for Green Energy and Green Engineering, 2011).
In conclusion, green engineering has taken a step in redesigning the production processes to eliminate the wastes and environmental pollution. This form of engineering aims at renewable products and services that pose a minimal or no risk to the environment and other life forms. Products which consist of components that can be reused to reduce wastes in the environment. All companies should embrace these methods to reduce the hazards and risks posed to the environment because prevention of dumping is less expensive than cleaning up.
- Preventing Prison Riots
- Moby Dick: Argument on Whaling
- Polyvinyl Chloride
- Islam and Judaism
- Innovation Ecology
Customer`s comment 11 days ago
Big thanks to your writing team for coming through for me with my last order. I didn’t give them a lot of notice, but they were able to come up with a superb paper for me. This is the kind of service that I love. Sometimes, I get forgetful, and I forget when my paper due dates are. It is so comforting to know that I can be in a rush and contact Essays-Writer.net and that you will deliver a great paper for me, no matter what. The fact that you include an anti-plagiarism report is great, too. I appreciate knowing that my work is totally original. Essays-Writer.net rocks!
Customer`s comment 26 days ago
Your writers are masters at time management. I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the short deadline notice. Thanks, Essays-Writer.net!
Customer`s comment 11 days ago
Your writing company delivers for me every time. I have never been disappointed.
Customer`s comment 10 days ago
I was happy with the two essays that your writers did for me. Even though the subject matter was quite dense, they managed to come up with high quality work. This has been my experience with Essays-Writer.net, over the long haul. Each and every time I have needed a high quality paper, you have come through with outstanding writing examples for me. I am pleased to recommend your writing service to my friends and colleagues.
Customer`s comment 8 days ago
The work I received from your writers was much better than expected, especially considering the affordability of your services! This is so impressive! I wasn’t aware, previously, that companies like Essays-Writer.net even existed, but then again, I’m pretty sure you are the only one that is this good. I have heard a lot of bad things about other writing companies, but never a negative word about Essays-Writer.net. You are reputed as being the best, and I, for one, am convinced that this is true.Thank you for the outstanding job you did on my essay and research papers.
Customer`s comment 26 days ago
Thank you for the great paper! My professor gave me a high mark for it.
Customer`s comment 25 days ago
As always, your writers have completed another impressive paper. This time, the subject matter required a lot of research. They not only completed the research. They also documented it absolutely perfectly. It would have taken me months to write a paper this thorough and of this high quality. Thank you so much for your diligence. It was greatly appreciated.
Customer`s comment 30 days ago
I find your writing service to be staffed with serious professionals who understand the urgency of turning out great writing for your customers. I have ordered papers from you for a year and a half now, and each time, I have been given superb papers that were error free and interesting to read. I truly appreciate your efforts, and hope to continue to do business with you from this point forward. You deserve my loyalty, because you are certainly loyal to your customers! Wishing you all the best.
Customer`s comment 7 days ago
Once again, I have sat down at my computer, because I feel I owe you big thanks. There is just no way to express how grateful I am for everything you did to make my research paper as good as it was. My professor gave me an A+ on it, which is the first A+ I have received during my entire college career.
Customer`s comment 11 days ago
Now I know where to go when I need an excellent paper written on a short notice. I am very happy with the paper your writers just produced for me. It was absolutely perfect. Please thank the ones who handled my order and let them know that I will definitely do business with Essays-Writer.net again.
Customer`s comment 9 days ago
Dear Writers #0019, Thank you for taking such a good care of me. I apologize for being as picky as I was, but I was only reflecting the professor’s requirements. I couldn’t believe my eyes when I got my grades back. He gave me an A+ on the paper, which is almost unheard. The paper you produced for me included each and every thing that the professor had required. He is notorious for giving us next-to-impossible tasks to perform in his class, but you managed to pull it off. I don’t know if any other student has received an A+ in this guy’s class, but he simply could not find a single thing wrong with my paper! Yay! Thanks so much.
Customer`s comment 3 days ago
My professor told me that the essay you wrote for me was the best one in the whole class! Thanks for doing such a good job. Compliments from this professor are rare!
Customer`s comment 29 days ago
Dear Essays-Writer.net, You handled my rush order beautifully. I am still amazed by the quality of the term paper, because your writers didn’t have a whole lot of time to write it. Still, they did a great job and I’m happy that I chose Essays-Writer.net. Thank you for taking care of this in such an eloquent way.
Customer`s comment 4 days ago
Dear Madam or Sir, Thank you for your competence and high standards. My paper was wonderful! I shall recommend your writing services highly. You are far and above better than other writing services that I have used. Your professionalism, attention to detail, high quality writing and great prices are a few of the reasons why I will never use any other writing service. Thanks again.
Customer`s comment 15 days ago
I am getting ready to graduate in another week, but had to take a minute to jot this line because I want you to know what a help your writing service has been to me, especially during my junior and senior years. The work has been hard, and I have had to study virtually all the time. With you helping me out with my more challenging writing projects, I have been able to move forward and do well on my tests and other school projects. I will be forever grateful to you for your help, and I wish you continued success with your fantastic writing service. All the best!