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Nov 8, 2017 in Informative
Institution of Learning
In 1789 political, social and economic problems took the form of a crisis. The French Revolution (1789-1799) appeared to cause not only global political and social changes, but also methods of warfare. The process of rapid increase in the armed forces presupposed logically justified organizational approaches and establishment of the efficient control mechanisms in the army during both the campaign and directly on the battlefield.
To begin with, at the end of XVIII c. there were no vehicles with a steam engine, thus a leading part in terms of transportation belonged to horses and carts. The military leader Napoleon Bonaparte established a thorough army division structure, developed an effective system of supply and medical aid. Consequently, each unit was in charge of supporting itself which lead to strong self-control and improved mobility of the army in general. The troops were relocating by land and sea (in particular, in 1798 Napoleon crossed the Mediterranean Sea with a stop-over on the Malta island). Correspondingly, the infantry moved on foot and cavalry used mainly horses (moreover, during the invasion of Egypt the army used camels). Provision was stored in special military supply chains. In addition, the army was followed by traders who used their own transportation system in order to sell products. It was a common practice to purchase goods from local residents.
As it was already mentioned, horses were a prime mover of the French army's mobility. They were used to pull cannons as well as served for postal services. On the way to the point of destination there were located special stations separated by equal intervals where messengers could change their horses which expedited the delivery. However, the state of routes depended on the weather conditions (for example, a road could be washed out).
To conclude, French efficient military administration and well-elaborated tactics facilitated relatively easy management of army actions with regard to strategic, operational and supplying levels which made France be one step ahead of the enemies.