Different Types of Significant Life Events and Transition Over the Life Span
First of all, it is important to put an emphasis on the fact that the perspective of the life course alike to the stage due to the fact that the set of transitions is experienced by each individual. Among these transitions it is possible to outline the following: the roles and statuses changing, which, in turn, show the distinct departure from the previous statuses.
The list of transitions may be represented in the following manner: starting school, joining the puberty, graduating from school, obtaining the first job, leaving home, retiring etc. The individuals’ age-related status may be classified while using the following terms: infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood.
- While referring to the infancy, which covers the age from birth to 18 months, the following events take their place- sense of trust developing, while one is provided with the care from parents (or caregivers). In the case if there is a lack of reliability, affection and care, there is a probability of mistrust occurrence/
- Early Childhood covers the timeframes from 2 to 3 years. There is a need of personal control over physical skills development in this age and in addition, the formation of sense of independence takes its place at this stage of development. If these processes are completes successfully at this stage of development, the feelings of autonomy are achieved by the individual, otherwise there is a probability of shame and doubt feelings occurrence.
- The Preschool age - 3 to 5 years, implies the following processes- asserting to the control and power in relation to the environment. If the adaptation is completed successfully, the sense of purpose is achieved, otherwise - the sense of guilt is developed.
- In the school age (6 to 11 years) - the set of new academic and social demands is managed by the individual. At this stage of personal development, the sense of competence is reached. In the case of failure- the feelings of inferiority occur.
- In the Adolescence period of life (12 to 18 years), there is a need of the personal identity sense development, which implies the ability of staying true to oneself development and if the process fails, the weak sense of self and confusion take their place.
- In the timeframes of Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) the loving and intimate relationships are formed by the individuals with other people. If this process is completed successfully - the strong relationships are formed. Otherwise, there is a risk of loneliness and isolation.
- In the Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years), there is a need of creating the nurture things, which are expected to outlast.
- The last stage of the individuals’ life implies the old age (65 to over), there is a need of sense of fulfillment development, which implies reaching of the feelings of wisdom.
Socialization of the Individual - Social Identity, Self-Categorization Theory and Self-Verification Theory
First of all, in the scopes of this section, it is important to rely to the fact that Farfel has been the first scholar who has proposed the social identity term in 1972. Author has referred it as the “the individual’s knowledge that he belongs to certain social groups together with some emotional and value significance to him of this group membership” as an extension to the social identity theory, the self-categorization theory has been offered by Turner (1985) and his colleagues (Turner et al 1987). In this theoretical approach the detailed description of the way the self and others prototype-based depersonalization is produced by the social categorization is outlined. The social categorization of self (or the self-categorization) is referred as the process of cognition when the individuality is assimilated to the general prototype of a particular social group and when the self conception is depersonalized. As an evident example it is possible to consider the case when the individuality is considered as the ‘unique personality’ and at the same time is compared and adapted t the relevant prototype of a particular social group.
Group Respond to Significant Life Events that Occurs to One of Its Members
After the individual is identified within the particular social category, one is tending to define oneself in the terms of social category defining features, which , in turn, matches the stereotypically “interchangeable” individual with other members of a particular group and, in addition, stereotypically, distinct this individual from outsiders (Hogg and Abrams 1988).
In the same manner, the identification is defined by Ashforth and Mael (1989) as the “perception of oneness with or belongingness” (Ashforth and Mael 1989) to the particular social category. Dutton (1994) considers the identification as the “a cognitive connection between the definition of an organization and the definition a person applies to him - or herself”. After the process of identification to the social group is accomplished either in virtual or physical context, the more autonomous motivation would be exhibited by the individual in relation to the membership in the particular social group, and as a result, the higher engagement quality would be achieved (Ryan and Deci 2001).
Impacts for Others in Health and Social Care When a Service User Experiences Significant Life Events
The next issue to be discussed in the scopes of this section is the individuality in the context of self-verification theory. It is possible to contrast the social identity approach to the self-verification theory (where the individuals’ self-views are formed by the group) in the context of the cases when healthcare service user experiences significant life events
In the self verification theory, the individual perception of the life and significant life events play the major role in the perceived and actual experiences within a particular group forming.
The core source of coherence is provided to the individuals by the stable self-views and approaches towards life and the events which take their place. This self realization is referred by the author as the invaluable mean of the human existence defining and as the guideline to the social interaction within the particular life cases (Swann et al 2003). Consequently, it is the core motivate factor for people for the validation and for confirmation their self-concepts even in the cases when these self concepts have the negative nature (experiencing diseases etc) (McNulty and Swann Jr 1994).
In such actions, people are provided with an option of encouraging others for considering themselves as they really are. Such approach helps to reach coherence both in coherence and mental life and to ensure that the process of social interaction unfolds smoothly.
Confirmation of the identity refers to such condition when the social environment of a particular individual matches ones’“self-identities” and, consequently, is realized in the terms of congruence between the way the particular member of the group defines him- or herself and in the way how the particular person is defined by ones’ group (Milton and Westphal 2005).
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