Support Live Chat
Nov 8, 2017 in Analysis
The term ultrasonic is generally used for describing a frequency vibration wave that is above the upper frequency limit of a human ear. It refers to all frequencies that are above 16 kc/s. In 1927, Loomis and Wood noted that the use of high frequency sound waves had a certain influence on machining. High frequency waves are required in the production of brittle materials which include ceramic, diamond and glass (Maluf & Williams, 2004). The production of ultrasonic machines started way back in 1950s. Ultrasonic impact grinding is also used to refer to ultrasonic machining. There are specifically two types of waves, longitudinal and shear waves. Since longitudinal waves are easy to generate and propagate them in liquids, gases and solids, they are used in most of the ultrasonic applications. Longitudinal waves have a short wavelength and, therefore, travel at a high velocity and are preferred (Hinduja & Fan, 2007).
Describing the Process of Ultrasonic Machining
Ultrasonic machining refers to a process in which materials are able to be removed because of the abrasive grains action. It starts by driving the abrasive particles into the work surface using a tool that oscillates at high frequency and it is normal to the work surface. The tool is then subjected to vibrations that have specific frequency, intensity and direction. Vibration is produced by a transducer which is then transmitted to the tool by use of a vibration system and in most times there are changes in the amplitude and direction.
The tool is usually made of materials that are soft. It then oscillated at frequencies of about 25 kc/s and has equivalent amplitude of 0.19 mm. a load of a few kilograms is used to press the tool against the work piece moving it downwards while cavity is cut in the work. It is clear that the machining rate do not actually depend on the load used. There is no relationship that lies in the rate of machining and the physical, electrical and chemical attributes of the material of work.
In general ultrasonic machining (USM) process is more useful in machining brittle and hard materials into composite shapes that are designed with a reasonable finish and with good accuracy. Hard alloys which offer high resistance to ultrasonic machining may not actually be applicable. Results have shown that the process can be used in order to make holes of any shape that curved to the axis. Ultrasonic machining process has a low MRR which introduces a lot of limitations. The metal cutting rates can thus be improved with the work piece and not affected. Therefore, ultrasonic machining causes little damage on the surface of the work material and with its low MRR, it can be used in nonconductive and conductive electrical material machining (Astashev & Babitskii%u0306, 2007).
Materials That Are Utilized In the Process
There are four main materials or elements that are used in ultrasonic machining process. They include the work material, abrasive slurry, tool tip and cone and the ultrasonic machine (Pandey & Shan, 1980).
The material is removed from the process by brittle failure hence brittle materials are the only ones that the machine can process. The results have shown that there is no limitation to the range of the usable materials. The only property that makes the material to be used is that it should not dissolve into the slurry media. The materials should also not react with the slurry material. Work materials that are ductile and soft are more economical to cut.
Tool Tip and the Horn
The tool cone is also referred to as the horn. It only focuses and intensifies on the mechanical energy that the transducer produces and ensures that the utilization of energy is very optimal. Usually it takes short time and studies have shown that it is smaller than half the wavelength and can act as a velocity transformer. The tool cone gives the necessary force amplitude ratio through modifying the vibratory energy. If a horn has a low gain it yields to low amplitude that is characterized by high force capability, and, in order to operate more efficiently, it must be tuned with a frequency that has a minimal kc/s. the material that is used for the cone should have enough strength in order to be able to sustain the stresses that could occur during its operation. In most cases the tool cone or horn is made of titanium which is considered as the best material. On the other hand, the tool tip is usually attached by a silver brazing to the tool cone base. It requires the area for the tip and it should not be larger than that of the cone. Higher penetration rate is caused by a small area of contact which also leads to a good abrasive flow.
Diamond dust, silicon carbide, alumina and boron carbide are the common types of abrasives that are used. Although boron carbide is very expensive it is the most suitable for cutting precious stones and steel tools. Alumina is used for cutting ceramics, germanium and glass, but it wears out quickly. Diamond dust ensures good surface finish, cutting rates and better accuracy and is used in cutting rubies and diamond.
The main parts of the ultrasonic machine generator are abrasive feed system, tool feed mechanism and the acoustic head. Most transducers that are of the magnetostriction type use the longitudinal type of waves and are usually made of nickel, because it has high strength and better insulation properties. The ultrasonic machine’s total feed mechanism should provide cutting force that is adequate, bring the tool slowly to the work piece, decrease force and is able to return the tool. The abrasive slurry is hand supplied in case of a small machine and should be stored in a bath at the cutting zone which helps to prevent the tool from scattering. The generator in the ultrasonic machine should be cheap, efficient, reliable and simple in design
Ultrasonic can be used in other engineering applications apart from machining, (Pandey& Shan, 1980). These areas of application include:
- Forming of plastics.
- To measure the velocity of fluids which are in motion.
- Ultrasonic is used in welding and casting metals.
- To determine the grain size and hardness of metals.
- It also can be used in detecting flaws and leaks.
- Ultrasonic is applicable in the measuring constants such as elastic, viscosity and density.
- It is used in determining nondestructive residual stress.
- It is used in treating and diagnosing certain diseases in the medical field.
The ultrasonic machine quality will highly depend on the size of grit of the abrasive that is used and its power rating (Hocheng & Tsai, 2012). Tool wear leads to poor holes which in turn make the materials of low quality. In summary quality problems in the process are brought about by wearing of the tool and the size of the grit.
Ultrasonic machining is one of the modernized machining processes used in machining of fragile and brittle materials. These materials have poor machinability and others are very hard to deal with. The critical need is to investigate ultrasonic machining application which cost is effective for the materials that are tough such as alloys and nickel. The obtained surface roughness actually increases with the ultrasonic oscillations energy, abrasive concentration and the size of the grain.
- Gender Roles
- The Atlantic
- Vodafone United Kingdom
- Tate and Lyle PLC
- Strategic Management Internal Analysis
Customer`s comment 3 days ago
Big thanks to your writing team for coming through for me with my last order. I didn’t give them a lot of notice, but they were able to come up with a superb paper for me. This is the kind of service that I love. Sometimes, I get forgetful, and I forget when my paper due dates are. It is so comforting to know that I can be in a rush and contact Essays-Writer.net and that you will deliver a great paper for me, no matter what. The fact that you include an anti-plagiarism report is great, too. I appreciate knowing that my work is totally original. Essays-Writer.net rocks!
Customer`s comment 9 days ago
Your writers are masters at time management. I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the short deadline notice. Thanks, Essays-Writer.net!
Customer`s comment 24 days ago
Your writing company delivers for me every time. I have never been disappointed.
Customer`s comment 11 days ago
I was happy with the two essays that your writers did for me. Even though the subject matter was quite dense, they managed to come up with high quality work. This has been my experience with Essays-Writer.net, over the long haul. Each and every time I have needed a high quality paper, you have come through with outstanding writing examples for me. I am pleased to recommend your writing service to my friends and colleagues.
Customer`s comment 18 days ago
The work I received from your writers was much better than expected, especially considering the affordability of your services! This is so impressive! I wasn’t aware, previously, that companies like Essays-Writer.net even existed, but then again, I’m pretty sure you are the only one that is this good. I have heard a lot of bad things about other writing companies, but never a negative word about Essays-Writer.net. You are reputed as being the best, and I, for one, am convinced that this is true.Thank you for the outstanding job you did on my essay and research papers.
Customer`s comment 24 days ago
Thank you for the great paper! My professor gave me a high mark for it.
Customer`s comment 26 days ago
As always, your writers have completed another impressive paper. This time, the subject matter required a lot of research. They not only completed the research. They also documented it absolutely perfectly. It would have taken me months to write a paper this thorough and of this high quality. Thank you so much for your diligence. It was greatly appreciated.
Customer`s comment 4 days ago
I find your writing service to be staffed with serious professionals who understand the urgency of turning out great writing for your customers. I have ordered papers from you for a year and a half now, and each time, I have been given superb papers that were error free and interesting to read. I truly appreciate your efforts, and hope to continue to do business with you from this point forward. You deserve my loyalty, because you are certainly loyal to your customers! Wishing you all the best.
Customer`s comment 7 days ago
Once again, I have sat down at my computer, because I feel I owe you big thanks. There is just no way to express how grateful I am for everything you did to make my research paper as good as it was. My professor gave me an A+ on it, which is the first A+ I have received during my entire college career.
Customer`s comment 11 days ago
Now I know where to go when I need an excellent paper written on a short notice. I am very happy with the paper your writers just produced for me. It was absolutely perfect. Please thank the ones who handled my order and let them know that I will definitely do business with Essays-Writer.net again.
Customer`s comment 14 days ago
Dear Writers #0019, Thank you for taking such a good care of me. I apologize for being as picky as I was, but I was only reflecting the professor’s requirements. I couldn’t believe my eyes when I got my grades back. He gave me an A+ on the paper, which is almost unheard. The paper you produced for me included each and every thing that the professor had required. He is notorious for giving us next-to-impossible tasks to perform in his class, but you managed to pull it off. I don’t know if any other student has received an A+ in this guy’s class, but he simply could not find a single thing wrong with my paper! Yay! Thanks so much.
Customer`s comment 22 days ago
My professor told me that the essay you wrote for me was the best one in the whole class! Thanks for doing such a good job. Compliments from this professor are rare!
Customer`s comment 17 days ago
Dear Essays-Writer.net, You handled my rush order beautifully. I am still amazed by the quality of the term paper, because your writers didn’t have a whole lot of time to write it. Still, they did a great job and I’m happy that I chose Essays-Writer.net. Thank you for taking care of this in such an eloquent way.
Customer`s comment 28 days ago
Dear Madam or Sir, Thank you for your competence and high standards. My paper was wonderful! I shall recommend your writing services highly. You are far and above better than other writing services that I have used. Your professionalism, attention to detail, high quality writing and great prices are a few of the reasons why I will never use any other writing service. Thanks again.
Customer`s comment 11 days ago
I am getting ready to graduate in another week, but had to take a minute to jot this line because I want you to know what a help your writing service has been to me, especially during my junior and senior years. The work has been hard, and I have had to study virtually all the time. With you helping me out with my more challenging writing projects, I have been able to move forward and do well on my tests and other school projects. I will be forever grateful to you for your help, and I wish you continued success with your fantastic writing service. All the best!