Sep 29, 2020 in Analysis

International Banking

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Abstract

International banking functions and begins by clarifying that a global bank is a monetary body that provides monetary services, for instance, lending opportunities and payment accounts, to overseas customers. These overseas customers can be companies and individuals, though each global bank realizes its specific policies defining with whom to transact. International banking as such serves to promote the widening of the business contacts extends the location of the customers, offers a pool of skilled labor, promotes liquidity and efficiency in the international markets, and interrelates the international markets.

The transactions thus demand payment platforms that can be used to make the customers feel safer l in their daily businesses that involve tractions so as to successfully complete the willing buyer and willing seller transaction deals. One such payment system to be reviewed is the use of international cheques in the international banking market. The bank of reference found suitable for the completion of this study was the National Bank of Abu Dhabi.

The study is thus based on the above-mentioned bank, in which the workforce within the bank is sampled. The sampling method involved was the use of questionnaires dispatched in order to collect information. The other methods used affirmed the information provided by the respondents and included the use of interviews and observations. The results of the study were then analyzed and used to answer certain questions of concern regarding the use of international cheques in the world banking market. These questions that probed the study included:

  • particular problems that were associated with cashing international cheques in Abu Dhabi;
  • the number of well-known customers that are consistent with the bank and the use of international cheques;
  • various problems that the customers face while using the cheques;
  • finally, the mechanism that the bank has put in place to help its customers feel safe as for the use of international cheques while not excluding the importance of online money banking avenues and systems.

Basing arguments on the results tabled after findings, the recommendations were drawn in prospects of helping the bank to stay at par in the international market, manage its customers, and be further capable of attracting more and more players in the banking industry.

Introduction

In its simplest digestible definition, international banking refers to banking transactions crossing different geographical boundaries. International banking as such serves to promote the widening of the business contacts extends the location of the customers, offers a pool of skilled labor, promotes liquidity and efficiency in the international markets, and interrelates the international markets (Mitra, & Siddiquee, 2013). Globalization, therefore, influences the international banking. It has facilitated the growth of the international market by establishing a trustworthy environment for trade, development and has ensured the realization of the triumph of the contemporary business organizations (Buch, & Goldberg, 2015).

The banking industry has gone further to be into partnerships in the past forty years with many international companies hence succeeded in acquisitions and formation of mergers. The competition, as an externality in international banking, is not viewed as a challenge; instead, it is to the advantage of seeking improvements. It is deemed to be constrictive in its impact. It encourages developments and improvements so as to ensure the quality of service delivery, novelty, and global market attractiveness.

International banking has been central to the subject of discussion. It has at all times been a contentious issue in banking since the supposed gains obtained from amplified competition need to be assessed alongside the risks of uncertainty. In this un-solidified business setting, which is described by global acquisitions, mergers, and great rivalry between the businesses, banking internationalization is a topic of major significance for economists and researchers. Nevertheless, regardless of the significance of banking internationalization, several scholars have concentrated on the theoretical structure of international banking (Buch, Koch, & Koetter, 2011). This book review, therefore, is to highlight significant areas in international banking through the use of a research study, thus establishing the benefits and drawbacks of the international expansion of banks.

Literature Review

The activities of international financial institutions have been at the center of deliberations on the effects and causes of the global financial disaster. Yet people recognize little concerning the actual scales and tools for the spread of liquidity tremors through global banks, and one can count the causes of heterogeneity in its spread across financial institutions. Scholars around the globe examine problems relating to international banks. Lawmakers, on the other hand, strive for evading bank disasters in that there are mechanisms to handle national banking situations as opposed to the globally spread crises that are hard to manage. Contamination in the banking sector is recognized in three channels including systematic, volatility, and idiosyncratic ones.

These disasters are devastatingly linked to the existence of both idiosyncratic and systematic contamination. The outcomes show that crisis tremors spread from an overseas influence through idiosyncratic contamination and raise the probability of a systemic disaster in the national banking structure by virtually 37%, while improved publicity through systematic contagion does not essentially threaten the national banking structure (Dungey and Gajurel, 2015).

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According to García-Herrero and Vázquez (2013), an expansion in international banking used a bank-level sample that covered the actions of 38 international financial institutions and their affiliates abroad between 1995 and 2004. It was discovered that financial institutions with a bigger portion of assets allotted to affiliates in developing market states were capable of achieving higher risk-attuned earnings. These additions were to some extent decreased by the attention of bank holdings in particular geographical areas, which is usually witnessed in global expansion plans.

Further, it affirmed considerable home predisposition in the global distribution of bank resources compared with the outcomes of a mean – adjustment portfolio optimization structure. Whereas financial organizations make the most of globalization in banking structure, the normal result of this growth, the amplified risk, has an effect on the external and internal surroundings of banks and also improves banking likelihood of collapsing. This occurs owing to the point that each operational activity task performed by a financial institution, notwithstanding the rate of improbability, is linked with some kind of risk. Thus, such dangers as liquidity risk, credit risk, interest rate risk, systemic risk, political risk, operational risk, and market risk were realized to be faced by international banks (Siskos, 2013).

The Handbook of International Banking offers a visibly available foundation of reference materials dealing with the core improvements that divulge how the globalization and internationalization of financial transactions have advanced over past times to the present day and examines the formation of a novel global monetary design. It delves more into the field of international banking by highlighting influences emanating from top experts in their particular fields, frequently with extraordinary knowledge in professional practice or academia.

The information is delivered mostly in terms of self-sufficient studies, which track the core progress of a clear topic in conjunction with particular allusions to working papers and journal articles. A number of contributions, nevertheless, are realized to spread new experiential findings, particularly where opposing paradigms are assessed (Mullineux and Murinde, 2003).

According to Kim and McKenzie (2010), there are problems regarding opportunities and challenges for global financial institutions in the quickly shifting international setting. It highlights banking and financial markets, not excluding the responsibility of lawyers and banks in the international monetary crisis, via looking at post-crisis monetary guidelines hence citing international banking factors. As such, the deregulation of advanced nations' monetary markets, the reforming of the customary confines of investment and commercial banking undertakings, and the growth of banking structures in developing markets currently have witnessed the development of the responsibilities carried out by banks.

Employing game concept, this review reports a simulation of the economic quandary to appreciate the recognition of coordination letdown amongst supervisory bodies. In the aftershock of the economic crisis, the trade structure of global banks has been put on the spot. Supervisory bodies are economizing to state lines across the globe by applying limitations on cross-border financial transactions. Thus, they propose control solutions to fight this coordination catastrophe through the presentation of a lasting standpoint of international banking for academics and regulators by merging policy concerns and academic perceptions (Schoenmaker, 2013). Finally, international banking in the global banking structures can be puzzling to go through. This happens due to diverse restrictions and regulations in every state, carrying out cross-border banking dealings that occasionally turn out to be a bother.

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Statement of the Problem

International banking transactions involve monetary exchanges between the buyer and the seller. It is a risk to walk with billions of cash in order to make a successful business transaction. For this reason, international cheques accepted across all the boundaries under a given trade organization block are vital as a method of holding money. It makes traveling among traders to be safer since the latter feel secure. They have no brief cases that can draw attention as it would be when individuals are subjected to walking with larger sums of money. Further, there exists a gap that has to be bridged. Empirically no current literature has talked about international cheque payment as the preferred method of payment in international transactions, particularly in Abu Dhabi. Yet, it is one of the business markets that involve the majority of transactions grounded on the existing wider customer base.

Justification of the Need for the Research

The findings from this study are expected to alert the Abu Dhabi banks of management to take advantage of international banking opportunities. As such, it is in prospects that it would rely on the findings and recommendations of the research analysis, hence conclusions to improve international cheque clearing services as the usage of these cheques has really grown. The efficiency and secure use of cheques will encourage business people to use them more. The findings also will interest academics as it will highlight the fact that the increased use of international cheques has been caused by improved international banking services and increased international trade, which, in turn, have fastened payments, thus playing a significant role in the entire economy.

Research Objectives

The main objective of this study will be to look at international banking and the use of international cheques in Abu Dhabi.

Specific Objectives

  • to find out the problems associated with cashing international cheques in Abu Dhabi;
  • to find out how many customers use international cheques;
  • to find out the main problems they experience;
  • to find out what the banks do for providing help to the clients.

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Methodology (Research Design)

The research design refers to the overall conceptual structure within which the research is to be conducted. The design is attributed to the needs and aspects of the research. It should be one that recommends the methodology capable of obtaining all the necessary information as deemed mandatory for the research successful completion. It is, therefore, a blueprint for the collection of data, measurement of data, and analysis of data aimed at achieving the research purpose (Kothari, 2004).

As such, the case study will be prominent in conducting this study. The study will use both qualitative and quantitative research techniques that will be administered to international cheque users in Abu Dhabi due to the fact that they have more information and experience on their daily business transactions; thus, they will be a good source of the information required. Descriptive and inferential techniques will be used in this study to analyze the data.

Study Area

This study will be conducted in Abu Dhabi because the National Bank of Abu Dhabi has its headquarters there. International cheque cashing are some of the services offered by the National Bank of Abu Dhabi, so the researcher will be able to get adequate respondents hence collecting the necessary data for the study.

Population

The population is the collection of all elements to be studied and about which one tries to draw conclusions. The targeted populations for the study are both the National Bank of Abu Dhabi employees and customers using international cheques, where the researcher will have a total sample of 200 participants from NBAD.

Sample Procedure

Sampling involves an assortment of a subsection of persons from inside a populace as for approximate features of the entire populace. The investigator will have an overall sample of 200 participants from NBAD, which include external and internal customers. The researcher will use a random sampling technique. This will ensure that there is equality in data collection from both customers and NBAD employees hence heterogeneity. The latter prompts representation data that is subject to no bias.

Data Collection Method

The study will employ primary and secondary methods in the collection of data while using instruments like interviews and observations. A questionnaire would thus be used to sample and gather information from the selected population.

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Data Analysis

The collected data will be systematically analyzed. This is done since data analysis is a vital step towards getting answers to the gaps that prompted the study. In additional data analysis, the investigation is an organized procedure entailing using the data, consolidating and separating it into tiny controllable groups. Data analysis leads to data synthesis so as to determine what is vital and what is learned in order to have perfect results to be conveyed to the population. Qualitative data analysis techniques will be used to ensure that all variables under investigation are covered. Qualitative data will be extracted from personal responses. Afterward, the reactions from diverse respondents will be tenaciously organized and classified based on the study objectives. Data will be sorted and matched so compare and contrast the respondents’ answers.

Questionnaire

Profile:

Gender:

Education level:

Age:

Nationality:

  1. What is your position of work in the bank?
  2. How many years of experience do you have working in the position above?
  • less than 1 year;
  • 1 year;
  • 2 years;
  • 3 years;
  • +4 years.
  1. How does international cheque assist a customer?
  2. Recommend effective ways for consumers to overcome the challenges of using international cheques.
  3. State your satisfaction with the online self-banking services you have been using?
  • very unsatisfied;
  • somewhat unsatisfied;
  • neutral;
  • somewhat satisfied;
  • very satisfied.
  1. What risks do you think international cheques pose to the international bank and the industry as a whole?
  2. In your opinion, do digital online banking services improve the usage of international cheques?
  3. How can you rate your satisfaction with the usage of international cheques?
  • very unsatisfied
  • somewhat unsatisfied
  • neutral
  • somewhat satisfied
  • very satisfied

Results

The results are based on the data collected from 200 people from the National Bank of Abu Dhabi, both employees and customers. The respondents have not less than three years of experience with the bank. The positions of employees range from the customer service section all the way to the bank managers. The majority of the clients that use cheques are international traders. The locals from Abu Dhabi constituted only ten percent of the clients. The reason for this is that they trade with the countries, and, therefore, can perform their daily business operations through direct exchange of cash if the need arises. In other instances, the locals facilitated their financial dealings via wire transfer of the money to their receivers or business partners.

According to the interview results, the international banking systems of Abu Dhabi revealed that the national banking system has developed a sharp insight into the use of international cheques in order to facilitate their cross-border client transactions. As such, the managers revealed that their shareholders and the investors make important contributions to the international banking system based on strategic decisions that are dependent on the trusted insight developed by the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. Such is the trust that the bank has created, hence the shareholders are able to navigate through hard decisions that ensure implementation of the proposed ideas; thus, they easily cut through serious decisions in order to arrive at solutions to the impending risks that could arise with the issues affecting the banking system.

The national banking system of Abu Dhabi performs routine rounds and consistent monetary policy for its competitors, clients, suppliers, and partners. This fact enables the bank to gather intelligence applied on the microeconomic level developed within the bank and in the global market. The interviewed sources revealed that the banking industry is subject to several competitions. These are the major business externality that the banking players are faced with. However, their strategy within the international system does not view such an issue as a challenge. Instead, they regard it as an opportunity to strengthen their customer relations, improve on their service delivery practices, and stay on top of their existing and impending competitors.

The majority of the employees had worked at the National Bank of Abu Dhabi for a period of more than two years. For that reason, they had monitored the trend of performance of the banking. They revealed that the banking system has been able over the years to identify international growth opportunities including the use of international cheques. In that way, it performs routine country comparative assessments. It then uses the results of such assessment analysis to decide on its opportunities for investing in its local markets, where it focuses on contingency plans for inflation probabilities, interest fees, and exchange rates across the globe. It then uses these informed opinions in accounting for its interest charged on the internationally deposited cheques to be accommodative to its clients, who are majorly international bodies and individuals.

Finally, the results indicated the National Bank of Abu Dhabi’s ability to be able to assess the economic, social, and political trends. These assessments, thus, enable the banking system to monitor its customer relation, deliver analysis, international ratings, and, further, the forecast for the political, social, and economic issues so as to establish a positive business environment.

Discussion

International Cheques Importance to the Customer

International cheques are very vital to the operations of international business organizations and individuals. The international clients of the bank reported being interested in making their transactions with the use of cheques because they realized that these cheques provide an alternative means of holding money. They are often involved in movements; thus, it would not be appropriate to walk around with millions in cash. In normal circumstances, any individual feels unsafe to carry or travel with bulk amounts of money. Therefore, the use of cheques becomes a safer medium of keeping money. It is advantageous in that cheques can be cashed in banks only. Another advantage of cheques is that many organizations prefer to accept them, which makes the transactions safer compared to the ones using cash.

Whereas there are other payment methods that the customers could use, they prefer the use of cheques because they see it as the safest method among different payment forms like the wire transfer and others. Paying or receiving payments over the internet was very risky since an individual bank account or the organization doing the transaction is subject to hacking. If that does not become the case, then there would be problems arising with the internet such as connection problems and low internet data transfer. That would offer enough time for the cybercrime to be committed leading to loss of large amounts of money in which the efforts to trace and recover would be too costly, while full recovery is not even guaranteed.

Effective Ways of Overcoming Challenges of Using International Cheques

The findings of the study establish various ways that the customers have realized to be significant in overcoming challenges of cheque usage. The customers use crossed cheques in order to avoid any fraud that might arise in the cause of their transactions. This practice ensures additional security. In establishes grounds, the amount of money indicated can only be drawn from a specified banker. The same goes for the equivalent sum of money credited to the holder’s account. Crossed cheques are not counter payable and are not accepted in cases of promissory notes. As such, the crossings are either general or special.

The clients have already realized the difference between the bank cheques and the private cheques. Thus, they accept international bank cheques that are drawn officially as the signing made them being officially issued by the bank. Further, the clients make sure to confirm that the paying bank is stated on the cheque. On the other hand, private cheques are drawn by individuals or business organizations upon which they are cashed against the respective accounts. Thus, once they have been verified by the foreign banks and the stated amounts covered, the clients only accept private cheques. Furthermore, the clients of the National Bank of Abu Dhabi have a fundamental baseline of dealing with private cheques. They do not accept any payment in form of cheques from individuals or companies they do not know. They know in mind that accepting such would be subject to fraud and forgeries.

Problems Associated with Cashing International Cheques in Abu Dhabi

International cheques as a traditional form of payment were widely used to facilitate the payments of goods and services that required large amounts of money. Unfortunately, the modern time has led to the advancement of new technologies that have found applications in the banking system. Then, the majority of traders, business entities, and individuals have thus adapted to the use of these technologies including credit cards, debit cards, and electronic cheques. The involvement of these service technologies in the banking sector of the Abu Dhabi National Bank has led to a decrease in the use of cheques; thus, the users of the hand-drawn cheques find it hard to successfully complete their transaction dealings.

The use of international cheques by parties or business entities for making payments for the goods and services is rendered for a given period of time to delay. In such a way, the cheques signed are to be drawn only on the date that it was signed for. These regulations are detrimental when it comes to business opportunities’ that need speeding up transactions. In such cases, there are delays in the transactions; thus, one of the trading parties is not able to operate within the planned time frame. Many of the business and individual parties prefer the use of posted cheques so as to do away with the instances of the cheques bouncing. In such a situation, the accepting parties view this as a delay in their operations hence the majority of the business has grown and developed the habit of not accepting post-dated cheques.

In their physical form, the cheques are paper. This implies that fraudsters can easily tamper with them including physical damages and forgery. As such, there can be instances of fraudulent transactions in which identity theft becomes a matter of concern. Thus, it is in some way very expensive to keep cheque books since some considerable amount of money would be needed to install security systems such as digital locks for safes in order to ensure that the cheque books are kept away from the fraudsters.

Recommendations

The Abu Dhabi banking system is known to be very sophisticated in that it already has excellent security systems that take into account both international and local clients. It further includes in part the advantages and disadvantages of the best choice subject to the individual situation. The bank has established all the standard accounts and features including the use of the debit and credit cards. For these reasons, the bank should necessitate initiatives of some professional guidance offered to the individuals and business companies for the use of cheques for their transactions.

Through the guidance offered by professionals, the bank can ensure that its clients are only exposed to allowing the processing of paper cheques in a very secure and timely manner. It is important that all the customers allied to the bank are made to understand the logistics of the need for only accepting and mastering the art of using genuine cheques so as to avoid fraud and time wasted on the crime and follow-up investigations for the recovery of the money.

Globalization has presented the world's actions, trading in the banking system, in particular, to look like a village market. Every opportunity that has gaps possesses a possible way of bridging these gaps via creating lasting solutions. The banking system of Abu Dhabi has embraced technology and has substituted paper cheque banking with the electronic one. It is thus advisable and recommended that the bank create a platform of informing and educating its clients on the use and the benefits of e-banking.

It has also established very sophisticated security systems to monitor the daily process of the bank so as to avoid fraud. The situation has become apparent that the bank has to make its customers feel safe by educating them on the application of new technologies so as to facilitate its relations with the customers and maintain the wider base of the clients while attracting some of them in the world market at the same time.

It is recommended that the National Bank of Abu Dhabi does not stay reluctant to have installed the most sophisticated security systems of guarding, managing, and overseeing all the transaction processes. Also, the bank should always stay in line with technological advancements. The information communication and technology department should always aim at implementing consistent changes in the world of technology. Cybercrime is a major threat to the banking industry more so when it involves wire and electronic transactions. It is thus recommended that the bank institute foundations promote creativity and innovation so as to establish grounds that facilitate daily ICT trainings, seminars, and education in assuring the customer of having his/her finances much safer.

Conclusion

Globalization has been realized in this report of a significant role in the international banking systems. It is in front of being able to establish and influence the international mechanisms of banking. In that manner, it has facilitated the growth of the international market by establishing a trustworthy environment for trade and development. It has ensured the realization of the triumph of contemporary business organizations. The National Bank of Abu Dhabi being established in this report has used the international banking platform for the best reasons so as to achieve its mission and goals.

As a particular banking industry, it has gone further to be into partnerships in the past years with many international companies hence having success in acquisitions and the formation of mergers. The bank has used international banking opportunities to widen its customer base and has established major and globally recognized branches in the market among Arab countries. It faces several sources of completion; however, the latter, as an externality in international banking, is not viewed as a challenge. Instead, it is to the advantage of seeking improvements. One may deem it to be constructive in its impacts. The bank also uses the competition not as a stamping block on its progress bar, but rather for encouraging and realizing its developments and improvements in order to ensure the quality of the service delivery, novelty, and global market attractiveness.

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