Biological Perspective of Personality
Biological perspective of personality refers to a method of identifying the causes of a certain behavior that focuses on the performance of the brain, genes, nervous system and the endocrine system thus contributing to development of individual’s characteristics. Therefore according to Charles Darwin (1859) genetics and evolution play a vital role in affecting human characteristics thus affecting their behavioral personality and development that is mainly dependent on individual biological aspects.
Theoretical concepts. The attachment theory explains and illustrates the enduring patterns of relationship starting from birth till death, (Bartholomew, 1990). It is assumed to have some evolutionary basis; it was first studies in non humans, then in human infants, later on in human adults. The primary assumption in this theory is that sensitive responding by the parent to the infant's needs results in an infant who demonstrates secure attachment, while lack of such sensitive responding results in insecure attachment (Lamb, Thompson, Gardner, Charnov, & Estes, 1984).
The theory classifies infant behavior as secure, avoidant, and resistant thus showing the strange human situation such as infants seeking proximity or communicate with the parent at a distance using a wave or smile, showing hostility to parents e.t.c
Therefore Attachment theory not only does it provide a framework for understanding emotional reactions among infants, but also helps in understanding love, loneliness, and grief in adults
Biopsychological theory uses technological powerful brain analysis tools such as Electroencephalography (EEG), Positron Emissions Tomography (PET), and Functional magnetic Resonance Imaging which are used to study prefrontal Cortex (PFC) and Amygdala relied upon in manifesting human personality. Thus studies have been able to illustrate how hemispheric asymmetry can affect an individual's personality mainly in individuals who have non verbal learning disorder. The assumption of this theory is that it interlinks the integrative biopsychosocial approach with personality and psychopathology by studying the brain and environmental factors to specific types of
Behaviorist theory tries to explain personality through understanding the effects of stimuli on human behavior that is the mutual interaction between individuals and the environment through analyzing various responses, and consequences. The theory also accounts for attitudes and traits. The assumption of this theory is that; there is continuity in evolutionary according to the laws of behavior which are applied to most organisms to enable the studying of animals as models of complex human responses. In addition it understands that all behaviors are linked with physiology and responses are received from programming a situation to external stimuli. Finally self actions portray a character personality.
Theory of behavior change. Behavior change is relied upon so as to understand and enhance health behaviors such as physical activity. Various approaches have been relied upon to emphasize on the influence of perceptions of control over behavior thus giving it labels such as self efficacy or social cognitive theory and the health belief model.
As a theory of behavior change planned behavior is a theory of behavioral control. Some other theories feature the roles of social influences, such as in the field of observational learning which are perceived social support, norms and interpersonal influences most of them being theories and models, however, they do not address the influence of the environment on health behavior.